The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with over four million youth members in its age-related divisions. Since its founding in 1910 as part of the international Scout Movement, more than 110 million Americans have been members of the BSA.
The BSA seeks to train youth in responsible citizenship, character development, and self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is used to inculcate typical Scouting values such as honesty, good citizenship, and outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping, aquatics, and hiking.
The BSA is a constituent member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for boys ages 7–10, Boy Scouting for boys ages 10–17 and Venturing for young men and women ages 14–21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional subsidiary that provides in-school and career education. The BSA operates traditional Scouting locally through units sponsored and operated by churches, clubs, civic associations, educational organizations and the like. Units are led entirely by volunteers who are supported by local councils using both paid professionals and volunteers.
The influence of Scouting on American society is frequently cited by both its advocates and critics. In addition to nostalgic memories of campfires kindling friendships, prominent leaders in various fields of endeavor have credited the skills they learned in Scouting as helping mold them into successful citizens. Critics have called the BSA's membership restrictions pertaining to avowed atheists and homosexuals unfair, resulting in litigation in various state and federal courts.
- Further information: Scouting, Scouting in the United States, and History of the Boy Scouts of America
The progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early twentieth century. With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical, social and religious development.:72–82
Scouting had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905. In 1907, British General Robert Baden-Powell founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works. Several small local Scouting programs for boys started independently in the U.S. soon after— most of these later merged with the BSA.:52
In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered the Unknown Scout and learned of the Scouting movement. Soon after his return to the U.S., Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910. Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA movement and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Beard, Charles A. Eastman and other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the U.S.:148
The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach [boys] patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred values.":7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission; "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows." The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law."
In the BSA, Scouting is considered to be one movement with three main programs:
Cub Scouting is the largest of the three programs, available to boys from first–grade through fifth–grade or seven through ten years old. The program is designed to pursue the aims of character development, citizenship training, and personal fitness. Cub Scouting is divided into age-based levels of Tiger Cubs, Wolf Cubs, Bear Cubs, and Webelos Scouts.
Boy Scouting is the flagship program of the BSA for boys ages 10 to 18. It uses outdoor activities such as camping, aquatics and hiking to achieve the aims of character, citizenship and personal fitness training. Varsity Scouting is a sub-division of Boy Scouting available to boys from 14 to 17; it adds a program of high adventure and sporting activities. Order of the Arrow is the Boy Scouting national honor society for experienced campers, based on American Indian traditions and is dedicated to the ideal of cheerful service and brotherhood.
Venturing is the program for young men and women ages 14 through 21. Its purpose is to provide positive experiences to help youth mature and to prepare them to become responsible adults. Sea Scouting is one of five focus areas in Venturing.
There are about 100,000 physically or mentally disabled Scouts throughout the United States. Anyone certified as disabled "may enroll in Scouting and remain in its program beyond the regulation age limits. This provision allows all members to advance in Scouting as far as they wish." Advancement is measured by the achievement to the best of the Scout's abilities.
- For more details on this topic, see Boy Scouts of America membership controversies.
Protests over the inclusion of African Americans arose early in the program. When W.D. Boyce departed the organization, he turned the Boy Scout corporation over to the members of the Executive Board with the stipulation that the Boy Scouts would not discriminate on the basis of race or creed. The BSA established the position that African Americans should be included, but that local communities should follow the same policies that they followed in the school systems. Thus, much of the American south as well as many major northern communities had segregated programs with "colored troops" until the late 1940s.
The BSA has policies which prohibit atheists, agnostics, and "known or avowed" homosexuals from membership in its Scouting program; both youths and adults have had their memberships revoked as a result. The BSA contends that these policies are essential in its mission to instill in young people the values of the Scout Oath and Law. The BSA also prohibits girls from participating in Cub Scouting and Boy Scouting. These policies are controversial and are considered by some to be unfair.
The organization's legal right to have these policies has been upheld repeatedly by both state and federal courts. The Supreme Court has affirmed that as a private organization, the BSA can set its own membership standards. In recent years, the policy disputes have led to litigation over the terms under which the BSA can access governmental resources, including public lands, and its non-sectarian status.
Learning for Life
Learning for Life is a school and work-site based program that is a subsidiary of the BSA. It utilizes programs designed for schools and community-based organizations that are designed to prepare youth to for the complexities of contemporary society and to enhance their self-confidence, motivation, and self-esteem. Exploring is the worksite-based program of Learning for Life with programs based on five areas of emphasis: career opportunities, life skills, citizenship, character education, and leadership experience.
Learning for Life is not considered a traditional Scouting program; it does not use the Scout Promise, Scout Law, uniforms, or insignia of traditional Scouting. All Learning for Life programs are open to youth and adults without restriction based on gender, residence, sexual orientation, or other considerations other than age requirements.
Aims, methods, and ideals
The stated objectives of the BSA are referred to as Aims of Scouting: character development, citizenship training, and personal fitness. The BSA pursues these aims through an informal education system called the Scout method, with variations that are designed to be appropriate for the age and maturity of each membership division.
One of the more visible methods of Cub Scouting is the uniform that gives each boy a level of identity within the den, the pack and the community. The boys learn teamwork by meeting and working together in a den of eight to ten boys under adult leadership. They learn and apply the ideals codified in the Cub Scout Promise and the Law of the Pack,  and in the Character Connections program that develops the core values of citizenship, compassion, cooperation, courage, faith, health and fitness, honesty, perseverance, positive attitude, resourcefulness, respect and responsibility. The advancement system uses both age-based ranks and an optional Academics and Sports Program designed for the development of physical, mental and emotional fitness. Most advancement is done in the home and is intended to involve the entire family and many Cub Scout activities include family members. Cub Scout packs are sponsored by a community organization as part of their youth program and is involved in the neighborhood and community.
Boy Scouts learn to use the ideals spelled out in the Scout Oath, the Scout Law, the Scout motto, and the Scout slogan. They wear a uniform and work together in patrols of eight to ten boys with an elected patrol leader. Scouts share responsibilities, apply skills learned at meetings and live together in the outdoors. The advancement system provides opportunities for personal growth and self-reliance. Scouts interact with adult leaders who act as role models and mentors, but they are expected to plan their own activities within the troop and to participate in community service. Opportunities are provided for leadership training with practical application.
Venturers are expected to know and live by the Venturing Oath and Venturing Code. They associate and work directly with adults as partners, but the crew is led by elected youth officers who are given opportunities to learn and apply leadership skills. Venturers plan and participate in interdependent group experiences dependent on cooperation. An emphasis on high adventure provides opportunities for team-building and practical leadership applications. A series of awards provide opportunities for recognition and personal growth. Each award requires the Venturer to teach what they have learned to others returning the skill and knowledge back to the community and enabling the Venturer to master those skills.
The National Council is the corporate membership of the Boy Scouts of America and is administered by paid professional Scouters and volunteer Scouters. Members include the elected National Executive Board, the regional executive committees, the local council representatives, members at large, and honorary members. The National program is directed by the National Executive Board and administered by the Chief Scout Executive using a staff of professional Scouters.
promote, through organization, and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using the methods that were in common use by boy scouts on June 15, 1916.
The charter authorized and set standards for the incorporation of the Boy Scouts of America. A provision in the federal charter gives the BSA the "exclusive right to use emblems, badges, descriptive or designating marks, and words or phrases" that they adopt.
The BSA is governed by the National Executive Board and directed by the national president, elected by representatives from the local councils. Board memberships include regular elected members, presidents, the Advisory Council chair, and the chairman of the Board of Regents of the National Eagle Scout Association. The board may also include up to five appointed youth members. Professional Scouters of the National staff are nonvoting members.
The National Executive Board has five group standing committees: the Administration Group Committee, Program Group Committee, Human Resources Group Committee, Regional Presidents' Group Committee, and Relationships/Marketing Group Committee. Each of these committees is in turn directly responsible for a corresponding support group that provides administrative functions. Group committees may in turn be responsible for support standing committees and groups divided into divisions. Ever since the Boy Scouts of America's founding in 1910, the President of the United States has served as the organization's honorary president during his term in office. 
Groups and divisions
The Program Group is responsible for delivering the Scouting program and includes the Boy Scouting, Cub Scouting, and Venturing Divisions. The Scoutreach Division emphasizes service to rural and urban areas and to minority populations. The African American Focus works with African American populations in partnerships with the NAACP, various the African American churches and other groups. The Hispanic/Latino Focus includes the ¡Scouting – Vale La Pena! emphasis for Hispanic youth that provides Spanish language resources such as handbooks, training material, and videos. The Soccer and Scouting emphasis is a partnership with the National Soccer Coaches Association of America to provide alternatives for Cub Scout age Hispanic youth. The Asian American Focus reaches out to Indo-Chinese American, Vietnamese American, Chinese American, and Korean American communities. The Rural Scouting focus targets small communities and includes the American Indian Scouting Association in partnership with the Girl Scouts of the USA.
The Jamboree Division provides support for the world and national jamborees. The International Division is responsible for relations with other Scout and Guide organizations; it includes the Interamerican Scout Foundation and Direct Service. The Relationships Division is responsible for relations with supporting organizations outside the BSA, including the AFL-CIO, Elks, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and all religious associations and awards.
The National Supply Group is responsible for developing and selling uniforms, apparel, insignia, literature, and equipment. It sells equipment and supplies through National Scout Shops, local council trading posts, authorized independent resellers, and online at ScoutStuff.org. Supply Group also licenses trademarks for use by other commercial vendors. The Administrative Group provides internal administration service and support. It includes the Marketing and Communications Division responsible for marketing the BSA program, administering the national websites and publishing Scouting for adult leaders and Boys' Life for youth.
The National Scouting Museum is located in Irving, Texas. Exhibits include Norman Rockwell paintings, high adventure sections, hands-on learning experiences, interactive exhibits, and a historical collection tracing uniforms, themes, and documents from the beginning of the Scouting movement in America. Among the museum's artifacts are the Eagle Scout medal of Arthur Rose Eldred, the first Eagle Scout.
Regions and areas
Each region has a volunteer president, assisted by volunteer officers and board members, and the day-to-day work of Scouting is managed by the regional director, assistant and associate regional directors, and area directors. Regions and areas are subdivisions of the National Council and do not have a corporate status separate from the BSA.
- Central Region covers all of Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Indiana, Kentucky, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, Virginia, and West Virginia.
- Northeast Region covers all of Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Puerto Rico, Transatlantic Council, and the Virgin Islands, and parts of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia.
- Southern Region covers all of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee, and parts of Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.
- Western Region covers all of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Far East Council and the Pacific Basin, and parts of Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas.
The BSA program is administered through 300 local councils, with each council covering a geopolitical area that may vary from a single city to an entire state. Councils receive an annual charter from the National Council and are usually incorporated as a charitable organization.
The council level organization is similar to that of the National Council. The council executive board is headed by the council president and is made up of annually elected local community leaders. The board establishes the council program and carries out the resolutions, policies, and activities of the council. Board members serve without pay and some are volunteer Scouters working at the unit level. Youth members may be selected to the council executive board according to the council by-laws.
The Scout executive manages council operations—including finance, property management, advancement and awards, registrations, and Scout Shop sales—with a staff of other professionals and para-professionals. Volunteer Commissioners lead the unit service functions of the council, help maintain the standards of the BSA, and assures a healthy unit program.
The BSA charters two councils for American Scouts who live overseas, largely on military bases in Europe and Asia. The Transatlantic Council, headquartered in Germany, serves BSA units in much of Europe, and the Far East Council, headquartered in Japan, serves units in the western Pacific areas. The Direct Service branch makes the Scouting movement available to U.S. citizens and their dependents living in countries outside these jurisdictions or in isolated areas. The Aloha Council in Hawaii also serves BSA units in the American territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and in the sovereign countries of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau.
The Greater New York Councils are unique in that they are divided into five boroughs with each led by a borough Scout executive. Each borough is then divided into districts.
Councils are divided into districts with leadership provided by the district executive, district chairman, and the district commissioner. Districts are directly responsible for the operation of Scouting units and, except for the district executive, are mostly staffed with volunteers. The voting members of each district consist of volunteer representatives from each chartered organization having at least one BSA unit, plus annually elected members-at-large who in turn elect the district chairman. Boroughs and districts are subdivisions of the local council and do not have a separate corporate status.
Units and chartered organizations
The unit is the main operating group of the BSA. Units use different names for each membership level—Cub Scouts are organized as packs, Boy Scouts as troops, Varsity Scouts as teams, Venturers as crews, and Sea Scouts as ships.
BSA's primary mission is to provide a values-based youth program that can be used by local institutions for the benefit of the youth in their community. Thus each unit is operated by a community-based organization such as a business, service organization, school, labor group, or religious institution that has applied for and received an annual charter from the BSA. This chartered organization is responsible for selecting leadership, providing a meeting place, and promoting a good program. The chartered organization representative is the manager of Scouting in a chartered organization and serves as a liaison between the unit, the chartered organization, and the BSA. Chartered organizations use the Scouting program to support the goals and objectives of the organization. As of December 31, 2007, the BSA's membership report by chartered organization indicated that approximately 62 percent of units are sponsored by religious institutions:
|Organization||Packs||Cub youth||Troops||Scout youth||Crews||Vtr youth||Total units||Total youth|
|The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints||9959||135115||18726||199141||8028||66473||36713||400729|
|United Methodist Church||5307||232758||5201||125989||1187||9673||11695||368420|
|Roman Catholic Church||4617||189985||3878||97185||905||10141||9400||297311|
|Parent-teacher groups other than PTA||3911||162534||874||21527||340||8671||5125||192732|
|Groups of citizens||2454||85060||1249||24297||1035||20159||4738||129516|
|Business and industry||1432||42328||931||17298||1096||13712||3459||73338|
|Lions Clubs International||1288||48539||1224||24174||190||1996||2702||74709|
|Other community organizations||922||30192||680||14671||814||16421||2416||61284|
|United Church of Christ||565||24039||653||16224||119||966||1337||41229|
|Christian Church (Disciples of Christ)||571||21648||584||12038||131||1027||1286||34713|
|Source: Boy Scouts of America Membership Report|
Units are administered by a unit committee appointed by the chartered organization. The unit committee, led by the committee chairman, oversees the unit program and activities and manages record keeping, finance, leadership recruitment, and registration. Each unit is led by a registered and trained leader—a Cubmaster, Scoutmaster, Coach, Advisor, or Skipper. These leaders, with one or more assistants, are appointed by the unit committee and must be approved by both the chartered organization and the local council. Leaders are required to complete training that gives an overview of the Scouting program, initial and advanced skills required for their position and the Youth Protection program. Additional certifications are required for events such as camping, swimming, boating and climbing. A continuing curriculum is available for additional skills including mentoring, youth leadership, supporting Scouts with disabilities or ADHD, conducting faith services and Leave No Trace.
The National Council is incorporated as a 501(c)|501(c)(3) non-profit organization and is funded from private donations, membership dues, corporate sponsors, and special events. In 2005, the BSA ranked as the twelfth-largest non-profit organization in the U.S., with total revenues of $665.9 million. As of January 2007, the American Institute of Philanthropy listed former Chief Scout Executive Roy Williams as having the fifth-highest compensation of any nonprofit chief in the United States, at $916,028. In 2005, Williams' pay was 0.26% of total expenses, whereas the national average among charities was a higher 0.34%. Williams was honored in 2005 and 2006 as one of the top fifty most effective non-profit leaders by the Non-Profit Times.
- Source: Better Business Bureau.
- The above numbers are for National Council operations and do not include local council income or expenses.
In January 2009, Hearst Newspapers reported that since 1990, one third of BSA councils had conducted timber harvests, which had resulted in at least 34,000 acres of U.S. forests being cleared. The harvests included 53 instances of logging in or near protected wildlife habitat. The report found that a few local councils has been making large sums of money by selling off land, often granted to it in trust, to developers.
Impact on American life
- Further information: Scouting in popular culture, List of Scouts, and List of Eagle Scouts (Boy Scouts of America)
Scouting and Boy Scouts are well-known throughout American culture. The term "Boy Scout" is used to generally describe someone who is earnest and honest, or who helps others cheerfully; it can also be used as a pejorative term for someone deemed to be overly idealistic. Prominent Americans in diverse walks of life, from moviemaker Steven Spielberg (who helped launch a merit badge in cinematography) to adventurer Steve Fossett to politicians, were BSA members as youths. Over two-thirds of all astronauts have had some type of involvement in Scouting, and eleven of the twelve men to walk on the Moon were Scouts, including Eagle Scouts Neil Armstrong and Charlie Duke. The pinewood derby—a wood car racing event for Cub Scouts—has been declared "a celebrated rite of spring" and was named part of "America's 100 Best" by Reader's Digest. President Gerald Ford said, "I can say without hesitation, because of Scouting principles, I know I was a better athlete, I was a better naval officer, I was a better Congressman, and I was a better prepared President."
Famed American illustrator Norman Rockwell's works were closely associated with the Boy Scouts of America for much of the 20th century.:43 Beginning in 1913, Rockwell began illustrating covers of Boys' Life, the magazine for BSA youth. He also drew the organization's annual calendar illustrations between 1925 and 1976.:89 In 1969, as a tribute to Norman Rockwell's 75th birthday, officials of Brown & Bigelow and the Boy Scouts of America asked Rockwell to pose in Beyond the Easel for a calendar illustration. As part of the U.S. Bicentennial celebrations in 1976, Rockwell's Scouting paintings toured the nation and were viewed by 280,000 people.:155 In 2008, a twelve-city U.S. tour of Rockwell's works is scheduled.
Alvin Townley wrote in Legacy of Honor about the large positive impact of Eagle Scouts in America. Townley cited such examples as how Scouts, especially Eagle Scouts, were disproportionately represented among Hurricane Katrina's volunteer relief workers; just as they are disproportionately represented among members of the United States Senate.:152 Mark Mays, CEO of Clear Channel Communications, told a magazine interviewer in May 2008 that, "Particularly in the very impactful ages of youth 11 to 14 years old, when they can really go astray and you're taking the time to spend with them and focus on cultural core values like reverent, trustworthy, loyal, and helpful —all of those different things ... Scouting has a huge positive impact on boys and their lives, and that in turn positively impacts our communities and society as a whole." Mayor of New York City and business tycoon Michael Bloomberg, said that the BSA's Scout Law required of all Boy Scouts—a Scout is trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent—are "all the American values ... Americans have quaintly simplistic ways and direct ways of phrasing things ... I think it's one of the great strengths of this country.":116
Peter Applebome, an editor of The New York Times, wrote in 2003 of his experience as an adult participating with his son in Scouting activities, "I feel lucky to have had this unexpected vehicle to share my son's youth, to shape it, and to be shaped by it as well." He concluded that, although Scouting is viewed by some as old-fashioned, "Scouting's core values ... are wonderful building blocks for a movement and a life. Scouting's genuinely egalitarian goals and instincts are more important now than they've ever been. It's one of the only things that kids do that's genuinely cooperative, not competitive.":319-320
At the turn of the 20th century, Halloween had turned into a night of vandalism, with destruction of property and cruelty to animals and people. Around 1912, the Boy Scouts, Boys Clubs and other neighborhood organizations came together to encourage a safe celebration that would end the destruction that had become so common on this night.
From the inception of the Scouting movement, Scouts have been urged to "Do a Good Turn Daily." The first national Good Turn was the promotion of a safe and sane Fourth of July in 1913. During World War I, Every Scout to Save a Soldier was a slogan used to motivate Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts to help sell War savings stamps.
Scouting for Food is an on-going annual program begun in 1986 that collects food for local food banks. In 1997, the BSA developed Service to America with a commitment to provide 200 million hours of service by youth members by the end of the year 2000. As part of Service to America, the BSA provided service projects in conjunction with the National Park Service (NPS). In October 2003, the Department of the Interior expanded the program with the creation of Take Pride in America, opening service to all Americans.
Service to America became Good Turn for America in 2004 and expanded to address the problems of hunger, homelessness, and inadequate housing and poor health in conjunction with the Salvation Army, the American Red Cross, Habitat for Humanity, and other organizations.
National Scout jamboree
- Main article: National Scout jamboree (Boy Scouts of America)
The national Scout jamboree is a gathering of Boy Scouts from across the USA. It is usually held every four years. The first National Jamboree was held in 1937 at the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. Since 1981 the jamboree has been held at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia. On February 11, 2009, BSA's National Executive Board selected Goshen Scout Reservation as the permanent home of the jamboree. However, on August 4, 2009, BSA announced that it decided to withdraw its interest in Goshen as the permanent site of the jamboree, citing significant restrictions on land utilization.
The national Scout jamborees have been held at:
- (1935) Washington, D.C. – celebrated the 25th anniversary of the BSA; canceled due to a polio epidemic.
- (1937) Washington, D.C.
- (1950) Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
- (1953) Irvine Ranch, California
- (1957) Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
- (1960) Colorado Springs, Colorado – celebrated the 50th anniversary of the BSA.
- (1964) Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
- (1969) Farragut State Park, Idaho
- (1973) Farragut State Park, Idaho and Moraine State Park, Pennsylvania
- (1977) Moraine State Park, Pennsylvania
- (1981) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
- (1985) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia – celebrated the 75th anniversary of the BSA.
- (1989) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
- (1993) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
- (1997) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
- (2001) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
- (2005) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
Future jamborees are scheduled to be held at:
- 2010 - Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia – celebrating the 100th anniversary of the BSA.
- 2013 - A 10,000 acre reclaimed mine site near Beckley, West Virginia is being considered after the August 4, 2009 rejection of the Goshen Scout Reservation amidst community opposition - Rockbridge County, Virginia site 
- Perry, Rick (2008-02-12). On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts Are Worth Fighting For. Macon, GA: Stroud & Hall Publishers. ISBN 0979646227.
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Townley, Alvin (2007). Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press, 12. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved on 2008-06-22.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 2.2 BSA Vision Statement. U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
- ↑ Aims of the Boy Scouts of America (PDF). U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
<ref>tag; no text was provided for refs named
- ↑ 5.0 5.1 Boy Scouts. The New Book of Knowledge. Grolier Online. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. (registration required)
- ↑ Template:Cite paper
- ↑ 7.0 7.1 Macleod, David L. (1983). Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-09400-6.
- ↑ Anderson, H. Allen (1986). The Chief: Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-239-1.
- ↑ Beardsall, Jonny (2007). "Dib, dib, dib... One Hundred Years of Scouts at Brownsea". The National Trust Magazine (Spring 2007): 525–55. National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty.
- ↑ Peterson, Robert W. (1984). The Boy Scouts: An American Adventure. American Heritage. ISBN 0-8281-1173-1.
- ↑ Peterson, Robert W. (2001). "The Man Who Got Lost in the Fog". Scouting. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Rowan, Edward L (2005). To Do My Best: James E. West and the History of the Boy Scouts of America. Las Vegas International Scouting Museum. ISBN 0-9746479-1-8.
- ↑ (1937) The National and World Jamborees in Pictures. New York: Boy Scouts of America, 131.
- ↑ Cub Scout Advancement. U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ What is Boy Scouting?. Fact Sheet. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Varsity Letters and Pins. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-08-05). Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Order of the Arrow. Fact Sheet. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Boy Scouts of America Youth Application (PDF), Boy Scouts of America. #28-406B. Retrieved on 2008-03-10. “Venturers and Sea Scouts registered in a crew or ship prior to their 21st birthday may continue as members after their 21st birthday until the crew or ship recharters or until they reach their 22nd birthday, whichever comes first.”
- ↑ What is Venturing. Fact Sheet. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Sea Scouts, BSA. Sea Scouts, BSA. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Petterchak, Janice A. (2003). Lone Scout: W. D. Boyce and American Boy Scouting. Rochester, Illinois: Legacy Press, 77. ISBN 0-9653198-7-3.
- ↑ Core Values. BSALegal.org. Retrieved on 2006-10-02.
- ↑ Duty to God. BSALegal.org. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- ↑ Discrimination in the BSA. BSA Discrimination. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
- ↑ Sherman, Mark. "Supreme Court Won't Review Berkeley Sea Scouts' Case". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved on 2008-05-25.
- ↑ Learning for Life — Exploring. Learning For Life. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ 27.0 27.1 Learning For Life. BSA Discrimination. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ What Is Exploring? (PDF). Learning For Life. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ BSA Vision Statement. U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Basic Leader Training. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-03-04.
- ↑ The Cub Scout Promise The Law of the Pack and The Cub Scout Motto. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-08-05). Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Character Connections. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-08-05). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ Cub Scout Advancement. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-11-10). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ Cub Scout Academics and Sports Program. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-11-10). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ Boy Scout Oath, Law, Motto and Slogan and the Outdoor Code. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-08-05). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ Boy Scout Advancement. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2008-01-17). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ What is Venturing (doc). U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Venturing and Sea Scouting Awards. U.S. Scouting Service Project (2007-08-09). Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ 39.0 39.1 Template:Usctc Federal charter, Boy Scouts of America
- ↑ 40.0 40.1 40.2 40.3 40.4 Nelson, Bill. Organization of the Boy Scouts of America. U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-03-12.
- ↑ 41.0 41.1 41.2 41.3 (1985) Rules and Regulations of the Boy Scouts of America. Boy Scouts of America.
- ↑ 2007 Report to the Nation.
- ↑ Scoutreach Division— BSA. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Scouting — Vale La Pena. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
- ↑ Soccer and Scouting. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Interamerican Scout Foundation. Interamerican Scout Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ ScoutStuff.org. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2006-03-13.
- ↑ BSALicensing.org. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-03-05.
- ↑ 2000 Conference (pdf). National Conference on Privacy, Technology & Criminal Justice Information (May 6, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-07-04.
- ↑ The Merits of Marketing. Marketing & Communications Division. Retrieved on 2008-07-04.
- ↑ National Scouting Museum. National Scouting Museum. Retrieved on 2008-03-07.
- ↑ BSA's first Eagle Scout. Eagle Scout Resource Center. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Northeast Region. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Southern Region. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Western Region. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Commissioners. Boy Scouts of America (2008). Retrieved on 2008-07-04.
- ↑ Transatlantic Council. Transatlantic Council, BSA. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Far East Council. Far East Council, BSA. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Direct Service, BSA. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Aloha Council. Aloha Council, BSA. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
- ↑ Greater New York Councils. Greater New York Councils, BSA. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Chartered Organizations and the Boy Scouts of America. Boy Scouts of America (2008). Retrieved on 2008-07-01.
- ↑ Section 30902 Purposes. Cornell University Law School. Retrieved on 2008-07-01.
- ↑ Boy Scouts of America Membership Report – 2007 (PDF). P.R.A.Y. (2008-01-07). Retrieved on 2008-05-22.
- ↑ BSA Online Learning Center. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-07-14.
- ↑ 66.0 66.1 BBB Wise Giving Report for Boy Scouts of America. Better Business Bureau (March 2008). Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ Top 25 compensation packages. American Institute of Philanthropy. Archived from the original on 2007-01-16. Retrieved on 2008-06-28.
- ↑ CEO compensation. Charity Navigator. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ (2006-08-01) "NPT’s Power and Influence Top 50 2006". Non-Profit Times. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
- ↑ Lewis Kamb. "Scout councils defend logging of their lands", Hearst Newspapers, January 30, 2009.
- ↑ Lewis Kamb. "Once-wooded camps sold off to developers; Boy Scouts of America often ignores trusts, conservation groups", Seattle Post-Intelligencer, January 29, 2009.
- ↑ Simon, Scott. "Remembering the Boy Scouts", National Public Radio, 2008-06-14. Retrieved on 2008-06-14.
- ↑ Joseph McBride (1999). Steven Spielberg. New York: Da Capo Press, 43. ISBN 0306809001.
- ↑ Di Freeze (2007-10-01). Steve Fossett: Always Scouting for New Adventures. Airport Journals. Retrieved on 2008-07-23.
- ↑ NASA and Scouting: A Strong Alliance. NASA. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
- ↑ Astronauts and the BSA. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Cowing, Keith. Celestron and Boy Scouts Venture Where NASA cannot (Or will not). Nasawatch. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.
- ↑ Best Mother-Son Finish. Reader's Digest (2006). Retrieved on 2008-02-29.
- ↑ Rumsfeld, Donald R. Speech: Boy Scout National Meeting Breakfast As Delivered by Secretary of Defense and Eagle Scout Donald H. Rumsfeld. United States Department of Defense. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ 80.0 80.1 80.2 Hillcourt, William (1977). Norman Rockwell's World of Scouting. New York: Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-810-91582-0.
- ↑ (March–April, 2008) "Rockwell and Csatari: A tour de force". Scouting: 6. Retrieved on 2008-06-22.
- ↑ (May–June 2008) "Leading the Way". Scouting: 33. Retrieved on 2009-02-13.
- ↑ 83.0 83.1 Applebome, Peter (2003). Scout's Honor: a father's unlikely foray into the woods. Orlando, FL: Harcourt, 325. ISBN 0-15-100592-3.
- ↑ The New York Institute for Special Education
- ↑ deliriumsrealm.com
- ↑ WILSON ENLISTS BOY SCOUTS; National Organization Will Help to Get Subscriptions for Loan, May 22, 1917, New York Times
- ↑ Take Pride in America. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
- ↑ Service to America. U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
- ↑ National Jamboree. Time (1937-07-12). Retrieved on 2008-09-24.
- ↑ National Jamboree – Site Selection. NCAC (2009-02-12). Retrieved on 2009-05-05.
- ↑ Virginia Site No Longer Being Considered for National Scouting Center. Boy Scouts of America (2009-08-04). Retrieved on 2009-08-12.
- ↑ http://www.roanoke.com/news/roanoke/wb/214254 Goshen Will Not Host Scout Jamboree
- Official site
- Boy Scouts of America at the Open Directory Project
- Scouting resources at the Open Directory Project