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For the Boy Scouting division within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America).
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The Boy Scouts of America (BSA) is one of the largest youth organizations in the United States, with over four million youth members in its age-related divisions. Since its founding in 1910 as part of the international Scout Movement, more than 110 million Americans have been members of the BSA.[1]

The BSA seeks to train youth in responsible citizenship, character development, and self-reliance through participation in a wide range of outdoor activities, educational programs, and, at older age levels, career-oriented programs in partnership with community organizations. For younger members, the Scout method is used to inculcate typical Scouting values such as honesty, good citizenship, and outdoors skills, through a variety of activities such as camping, aquatics, and hiking.[2][3]

The BSA is a constituent member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement. The traditional Scouting divisions are Cub Scouting for boys ages 7–10, Boy Scouting for boys ages 10–17 and Venturing for young men and women ages 14–21. Learning for Life is a non-traditional subsidiary that provides in-school and career education.[4][5] The BSA operates traditional Scouting locally through units sponsored and operated by churches, clubs, civic associations, educational organizations and the like. Units are led entirely by volunteers who are supported by local councils using both paid professionals and volunteers.

The influence of Scouting on American society is frequently cited by both its advocates and critics. In addition to nostalgic memories of campfires kindling friendships, prominent leaders in various fields of endeavor have credited the skills they learned in Scouting as helping mold them into successful citizens. Critics have called the BSA's membership restrictions pertaining to avowed atheists and homosexuals unfair, resulting in litigation in various state and federal courts.

Origins

Further information: ScoutingScouting in the United States, and History of the Boy Scouts of America
CAB with Scouts

With the organization of the Boy Scouts of America in 1910, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints organized the MIA Scouts (pictured; Church Administration Building, c. 1917) a year later, and became one of the first sponsoring organization of the BSA in 1913.

The progressive movement in the United States was at its height during the early twentieth century.[6] With the migration of families from farms to cities, there were concerns among some people that young men were no longer learning patriotism and individualism. The YMCA was an early promoter of reforms for young men with a focus on social welfare and programs of mental, physical, social and religious development.[7]:72–82

Scouting had two notable predecessors in the United States: the Woodcraft Indians started by Ernest Thompson Seton in 1902 and the Sons of Daniel Boone founded by Daniel Carter Beard in 1905.[8] In 1907, British General Robert Baden-Powell founded the Scouting movement in England using elements of Seton's works.[9] Several small local Scouting programs for boys started independently in the U.S. soon after— most of these later merged with the BSA.[10]:52

In 1909, Chicago publisher W. D. Boyce was visiting London, where he encountered the Unknown Scout and learned of the Scouting movement.[11] Soon after his return to the U.S., Boyce incorporated the Boy Scouts of America on February 8, 1910.[12] Edgar M. Robinson and Lee F. Hanmer became interested in the nascent BSA movement and convinced Boyce to turn the program over to the YMCA for development in April 1910. Robinson enlisted Seton, Beard, Charles A. Eastman and other prominent leaders in the early youth movements. In January 1911, Robinson turned the movement over to James E. West who became the first Chief Scout Executive and Scouting began to expand in the U.S.[7]:148

The BSA's stated purpose at its incorporation in 1910 was "to teach [boys] patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred values."[1]:7 Later, in 1937, Deputy Chief Scout Executive George J. Fisher expressed the BSA's mission; "Each generation as it comes to maturity has no more important duty than that of teaching high ideals and proper behavior to the generation which follows."[13] The current mission statement of the BSA is "to prepare young people to make ethical and moral choices over their lifetimes by instilling in them the values of the Scout Oath and Law."[2]

Membership

Traditional membership

VarsityScoutspreparingtoheadoutbackpacking2004

Varsity Scouts preparing to go backpacking

In the BSA, Scouting is considered to be one movement with three main programs:

Cub Scouting is the largest of the three programs, available to boys from first–grade through fifth–grade or seven through ten years old. The program is designed to pursue the aims of character development, citizenship training, and personal fitness. Cub Scouting is divided into age-based levels of Tiger Cubs, Wolf Cubs, Bear Cubs, and Webelos Scouts.[2][14]

Boy Scouting is the flagship program of the BSA for boys ages 10 to 18. It uses outdoor activities such as camping, aquatics and hiking to achieve the aims of character, citizenship and personal fitness training.[15] Varsity Scouting is a sub-division of Boy Scouting available to boys from 14 to 17; it adds a program of high adventure and sporting activities.[16] Order of the Arrow is the Boy Scouting national honor society for experienced campers, based on American Indian traditions and is dedicated to the ideal of cheerful service and brotherhood.[17]

Venturing is the program for young men and women ages 14 through 21.[18] Its purpose is to provide positive experiences to help youth mature and to prepare them to become responsible adults.[19] Sea Scouting is one of five focus areas in Venturing.[20]

There are about 100,000 physically or mentally disabled Scouts throughout the United States. Anyone certified as disabled "may enroll in Scouting and remain in its program beyond the regulation age limits. This provision allows all members to advance in Scouting as far as they wish."[5] Advancement is measured by the achievement to the best of the Scout's abilities.

Membership controversies

For more details on this topic, see Boy Scouts of America membership controversies.

Protests over the inclusion of African Americans arose early in the program. When W.D. Boyce departed the organization, he turned the Boy Scout corporation over to the members of the Executive Board with the stipulation that the Boy Scouts would not discriminate on the basis of race or creed. The BSA established the position that African Americans should be included, but that local communities should follow the same policies that they followed in the school systems. Thus, much of the American south as well as many major northern communities had segregated programs with "colored troops" until the late 1940s.[21]

The BSA has policies which prohibit atheists, agnostics, and "known or avowed" homosexuals from membership in its Scouting program; both youths and adults have had their memberships revoked as a result. The BSA contends that these policies are essential in its mission to instill in young people the values of the Scout Oath and Law.[22][23] The BSA also prohibits girls from participating in Cub Scouting and Boy Scouting. These policies are controversial and are considered by some to be unfair.[24]

The organization's legal right to have these policies has been upheld repeatedly by both state and federal courts. The Supreme Court has affirmed that as a private organization, the BSA can set its own membership standards. In recent years, the policy disputes have led to litigation over the terms under which the BSA can access governmental resources, including public lands, and its non-sectarian status.[25]

Learning for Life

Learning for Life is a school and work-site based program that is a subsidiary of the BSA. It utilizes programs designed for schools and community-based organizations that are designed to prepare youth to for the complexities of contemporary society and to enhance their self-confidence, motivation, and self-esteem.[26] Exploring is the worksite-based program of Learning for Life with programs based on five areas of emphasis: career opportunities, life skills, citizenship, character education, and leadership experience.[27]

Learning for Life is not considered a traditional Scouting program; it does not use the Scout Promise, Scout Law, uniforms, or insignia of traditional Scouting. All Learning for Life programs are open to youth and adults without restriction based on gender, residence, sexual orientation, or other considerations other than age requirements.[27][28]

Aims, methods, and ideals

See also: Advancement and recognition in the Boy Scouts of America

The stated objectives of the BSA are referred to as Aims of Scouting: character development, citizenship training, and personal fitness. The BSA pursues these aims through an informal education system called the Scout method, with variations that are designed to be appropriate for the age and maturity of each membership division.[29][30]

One of the more visible methods of Cub Scouting is the uniform that gives each boy a level of identity within the den, the pack and the community. The boys learn teamwork by meeting and working together in a den of eight to ten boys under adult leadership. They learn and apply the ideals codified in the Cub Scout Promise and the Law of the Pack, [31] and in the Character Connections program that develops the core values of citizenship, compassion, cooperation, courage, faith, health and fitness, honesty, perseverance, positive attitude, resourcefulness, respect and responsibility.[32] The advancement system uses both age-based ranks and an optional Academics and Sports Program designed for the development of physical, mental and emotional fitness.[33][34] Most advancement is done in the home and is intended to involve the entire family and many Cub Scout activities include family members. Cub Scout packs are sponsored by a community organization as part of their youth program and is involved in the neighborhood and community.

Boy Scouts learn to use the ideals spelled out in the Scout Oath, the Scout Law, the Scout motto, and the Scout slogan.[35] They wear a uniform and work together in patrols of eight to ten boys with an elected patrol leader. Scouts share responsibilities, apply skills learned at meetings and live together in the outdoors. The advancement system provides opportunities for personal growth and self-reliance.[36] Scouts interact with adult leaders who act as role models and mentors, but they are expected to plan their own activities within the troop and to participate in community service. Opportunities are provided for leadership training with practical application.

Venturers are expected to know and live by the Venturing Oath and Venturing Code.[37] They associate and work directly with adults as partners, but the crew is led by elected youth officers who are given opportunities to learn and apply leadership skills. Venturers plan and participate in interdependent group experiences dependent on cooperation. An emphasis on high adventure provides opportunities for team-building and practical leadership applications. A series of awards provide opportunities for recognition and personal growth.[38] Each award requires the Venturer to teach what they have learned to others returning the skill and knowledge back to the community and enabling the Venturer to master those skills.

Organization

National Council

BSA National HQ

BSA National Office in Irving, Texas

The National Council is the corporate membership of the Boy Scouts of America and is administered by paid professional Scouters and volunteer Scouters. Members include the elected National Executive Board, the regional executive committees, the local council representatives, members at large, and honorary members. The National program is directed by the National Executive Board and administered by the Chief Scout Executive using a staff of professional Scouters.

The BSA was granted a Congressional charter in 1916, now codified as 36 U.S.C. Chapter 309,[39] stating that their purpose is to:

promote, through organization, and cooperation with other agencies, the ability of boys to do things for themselves and others, to train them in scoutcraft, and to teach them patriotism, courage, self-reliance, and kindred virtues, using the methods that were in common use by boy scouts on June 15, 1916.

The charter authorized and set standards for the incorporation of the Boy Scouts of America. A provision in the federal charter gives the BSA the "exclusive right to use emblems, badges, descriptive or designating marks, and words or phrases" that they adopt.

The BSA is governed by the National Executive Board and directed by the national president, elected by representatives from the local councils.[40] Board memberships include regular elected members, presidents, the Advisory Council chair, and the chairman of the Board of Regents of the National Eagle Scout Association. The board may also include up to five appointed youth members. Professional Scouters of the National staff are nonvoting members.

The National Executive Board has five group standing committees: the Administration Group Committee, Program Group Committee, Human Resources Group Committee, Regional Presidents' Group Committee, and Relationships/Marketing Group Committee.[41] Each of these committees is in turn directly responsible for a corresponding support group that provides administrative functions. Group committees may in turn be responsible for support standing committees and groups divided into divisions. Ever since the Boy Scouts of America's founding in 1910, the President of the United States has served as the organization's honorary president during his term in office. [42]

Groups and divisions

BlackwaterRiverCanoe5

Boy Scouts canoeing on the Blackwater River, Virginia

The Program Group is responsible for delivering the Scouting program and includes the Boy Scouting, Cub Scouting, and Venturing Divisions. The Scoutreach Division emphasizes service to rural and urban areas and to minority populations.[43] The African American Focus works with African American populations in partnerships with the NAACP, various the African American churches and other groups. The Hispanic/Latino Focus includes the ¡Scouting – Vale La Pena! emphasis for Hispanic youth that provides Spanish language resources such as handbooks, training material, and videos.[44] The Soccer and Scouting emphasis is a partnership with the National Soccer Coaches Association of America to provide alternatives for Cub Scout age Hispanic youth.[45] The Asian American Focus reaches out to Indo-Chinese American, Vietnamese American, Chinese American, and Korean American communities. The Rural Scouting focus targets small communities and includes the American Indian Scouting Association in partnership with the Girl Scouts of the USA.

The High Adventure Division administers Philmont Scout Ranch, Northern Tier National High Adventure Bases, and Florida National High Adventure Sea Base.

The Jamboree Division provides support for the world and national jamborees. The International Division is responsible for relations with other Scout and Guide organizations; it includes the Interamerican Scout Foundation and Direct Service.[46] The Relationships Division is responsible for relations with supporting organizations outside the BSA, including the AFL-CIO, Elks, Veterans of Foreign Wars, and all religious associations and awards.

The National Supply Group is responsible for developing and selling uniforms, apparel, insignia, literature, and equipment. It sells equipment and supplies through National Scout Shops, local council trading posts, authorized independent resellers, and online at ScoutStuff.org.[47] Supply Group also licenses trademarks for use by other commercial vendors.[48] The Administrative Group provides internal administration service and support.[49] It includes the Marketing and Communications Division responsible for marketing the BSA program,[50] administering the national websites and publishing Scouting for adult leaders and Boys' Life for youth.

The National Scouting Museum is located in Irving, Texas.[51] Exhibits include Norman Rockwell paintings, high adventure sections, hands-on learning experiences, interactive exhibits, and a historical collection tracing uniforms, themes, and documents from the beginning of the Scouting movement in America. Among the museum's artifacts are the Eagle Scout medal of Arthur Rose Eldred, the first Eagle Scout.[52]

The National Court of Honor certifies and the BSA's highest awards: lifesaving and meritorious action awards, Distinguished service awards, Eagle Scout and Quartermaster.

Regions and areas

BSA Region Map

Boy Scouts of America regions as of 1992

For administrative purposes, the BSA is divided into four regions—Western, Central, Southern, and Northeast.[40] Each region is then subdivided into areas.

Each region has a volunteer president, assisted by volunteer officers and board members, and the day-to-day work of Scouting is managed by the regional director, assistant and associate regional directors, and area directors. Regions and areas are subdivisions of the National Council and do not have a corporate status separate from the BSA.[41]

  • Central Region covers all of Iowa, Illinois, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Ohio, Wisconsin, and parts of Indiana, Kentucky, Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, Virginia, and West Virginia.
  • Northeast Region covers all of Connecticut, District of Columbia, Delaware, Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Puerto Rico, Transatlantic Council, and the Virgin Islands, and parts of Maryland, Virginia, and West Virginia.[53]
  • Southern Region covers all of Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, and Tennessee, and parts of Indiana, Kentucky, Maryland, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia.[54]
  • Western Region covers all of Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Idaho, New Mexico, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, Washington, Wyoming, Far East Council and the Pacific Basin, and parts of Montana, Nebraska, South Dakota, and Texas.[55]

Local councils

The BSA program is administered through 300 local councils, with each council covering a geopolitical area that may vary from a single city to an entire state. Councils receive an annual charter from the National Council and are usually incorporated as a charitable organization.[40]

The council level organization is similar to that of the National Council. The council executive board is headed by the council president and is made up of annually elected local community leaders.[41] The board establishes the council program and carries out the resolutions, policies, and activities of the council. Board members serve without pay and some are volunteer Scouters working at the unit level. Youth members may be selected to the council executive board according to the council by-laws.

Philly Scout

"The Ideal Scout," a statue by R. Tait McKenzie in front of the Bruce S. Marks Scout Resource Center in the Cradle of Liberty Council

The Scout executive manages council operations—including finance, property management, advancement and awards, registrations, and Scout Shop sales—with a staff of other professionals and para-professionals. Volunteer Commissioners lead the unit service functions of the council, help maintain the standards of the BSA, and assures a healthy unit program.[56]

The BSA charters two councils for American Scouts who live overseas, largely on military bases in Europe and Asia. The Transatlantic Council, headquartered in Germany, serves BSA units in much of Europe,[57] and the Far East Council, headquartered in Japan, serves units in the western Pacific areas.[58] The Direct Service branch makes the Scouting movement available to U.S. citizens and their dependents living in countries outside these jurisdictions or in isolated areas.[59] The Aloha Council in Hawaii also serves BSA units in the American territories of American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands and in the sovereign countries of the Federated States of Micronesia, the Marshall Islands, and Palau.[60]

The Greater New York Councils are unique in that they are divided into five boroughs with each led by a borough Scout executive.[61] Each borough is then divided into districts.

Councils are divided into districts with leadership provided by the district executive, district chairman, and the district commissioner.[40] Districts are directly responsible for the operation of Scouting units and, except for the district executive, are mostly staffed with volunteers.[41] The voting members of each district consist of volunteer representatives from each chartered organization having at least one BSA unit, plus annually elected members-at-large who in turn elect the district chairman. Boroughs and districts are subdivisions of the local council and do not have a separate corporate status.

Units and chartered organizations

The unit is the main operating group of the BSA.[40] Units use different names for each membership level—Cub Scouts are organized as packs, Boy Scouts as troops, Varsity Scouts as teams, Venturers as crews, and Sea Scouts as ships.

BSA's primary mission is to provide a values-based youth program that can be used by local institutions for the benefit of the youth in their community. Thus each unit is operated by a community-based organization such as a business, service organization, school, labor group, or religious institution that has applied for and received an annual charter from the BSA.[39][62][63] This chartered organization is responsible for selecting leadership, providing a meeting place, and promoting a good program. The chartered organization representative is the manager of Scouting in a chartered organization and serves as a liaison between the unit, the chartered organization, and the BSA. Chartered organizations use the Scouting program to support the goals and objectives of the organization. As of December 31, 2007, the BSA's membership report by chartered organization indicated that approximately 62 percent of units are sponsored by religious institutions:

BSA traditional Scouting membership as of December 2007 — top 25 chartered organizations
Organization Packs Cub youth Troops Scout youth Crews Vtr youth Total units Total youth
The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints 99591351151872619914180286647336713400729
United Methodist Church 530723275852011259891187967311695368420
Roman Catholic Church 4617189985387897185905101419400297311
Parent-teacher groups other than PTA 39111625348742152734086715125192732
Groups of citizens 2454850601249242971035201594738129516
Baptist|Baptist churches 21146929619693381335034674433106576
Lutheranism|Lutheran churches 18757168018884683443637104199122224
Presbyterianism|Presbyterian churches 15316855618935303140835143832125101
Business and industry 14324232893117298109613712345973338
Private schools1568468836981517180430458307092512
American Legion 1248457621220230233114130277972915
Lions Clubs International 1288485391224241741901996270274709
Other community organizations 922301926801467181416421241661284
Parent-Teacher Associations 177973075330633641971215080382
Community centers 7251752150992682114444144531233
Rotary International 62527061618155701793225142245856
Fire departments 60721636583114992171889140735024
United Church of Christ 5652403965316224119966133741229
Episcopal Church 55124167608172611611666132043094
Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) 57121648584120381311027128634713
Source: Boy Scouts of America Membership Report[64]

Units are administered by a unit committee appointed by the chartered organization. The unit committee, led by the committee chairman, oversees the unit program and activities and manages record keeping, finance, leadership recruitment, and registration. Each unit is led by a registered and trained leader—a Cubmaster, Scoutmaster, Coach, Advisor, or Skipper. These leaders, with one or more assistants, are appointed by the unit committee and must be approved by both the chartered organization and the local council. Leaders are required to complete training that gives an overview of the Scouting program, initial and advanced skills required for their position and the Youth Protection program. Additional certifications are required for events such as camping, swimming, boating and climbing. A continuing curriculum is available for additional skills including mentoring, youth leadership, supporting Scouts with disabilities or ADHD, conducting faith services and Leave No Trace.[65]

Finance

The National Council is incorporated as a 501(c)|501(c)(3) non-profit organization and is funded from private donations, membership dues, corporate sponsors, and special events.[66] In 2005, the BSA ranked as the twelfth-largest non-profit organization in the U.S., with total revenues of $665.9 million. As of January 2007, the American Institute of Philanthropy listed former Chief Scout Executive Roy Williams as having the fifth-highest compensation of any nonprofit chief in the United States, at $916,028.[67] In 2005, Williams' pay was 0.26% of total expenses, whereas the national average among charities was a higher 0.34%.[68] Williams was honored in 2005 and 2006 as one of the top fifty most effective non-profit leaders by the Non-Profit Times.[69]

2006 Income
Net investment income $78,062,000
Fees $73,738,000
Supply operations $20,270,000
Retirement benefits trust $10,183,000
Contributions and bequests $5,191,000
Other $4,278,000
Magazine publications $2,742,000
Total Income $194,464,000
2006 Expenses
Program development and delivery $46,277,000
Field operations $6,043,000
Insurance programs $16,650,000
Human resources and training $10,050,000
Program marketing $6,741,000
World Scout Bureau fees $1,311,000
Total program expenses $117,072,000
Source: Better Business Bureau.[66]
The above numbers are for National Council operations and do not include local council income or expenses.

In January 2009, Hearst Newspapers reported that since 1990, one third of BSA councils had conducted timber harvests, which had resulted in at least 34,000 acres of U.S. forests being cleared. The harvests included 53 instances of logging in or near protected wildlife habitat.[70] The report found that a few local councils has been making large sums of money by selling off land, often granted to it in trust, to developers.[71]

Impact on American life

Further information: Scouting in popular cultureList of Scouts, and List of Eagle Scouts (Boy Scouts of America)

Scouting and Boy Scouts are well-known throughout American culture. The term "Boy Scout" is used to generally describe someone who is earnest and honest, or who helps others cheerfully; it can also be used as a pejorative term for someone deemed to be overly idealistic.[72] Prominent Americans in diverse walks of life, from moviemaker Steven Spielberg (who helped launch a merit badge in cinematography) to adventurer Steve Fossett to politicians, were BSA members as youths.[73][74] Over two-thirds of all astronauts have had some type of involvement in Scouting,[75] and eleven of the twelve men to walk on the Moon were Scouts, including Eagle Scouts Neil Armstrong and Charlie Duke.[76][77] The pinewood derby—a wood car racing event for Cub Scouts—has been declared "a celebrated rite of spring" and was named part of "America's 100 Best" by Reader's Digest.[78] President Gerald Ford said, "I can say without hesitation, because of Scouting principles, I know I was a better athlete, I was a better naval officer, I was a better Congressman, and I was a better prepared President."[79]

Norman Rockwell- Beyond the Easel

Norman Rockwell's Beyond the Easel

Famed American illustrator Norman Rockwell's works were closely associated with the Boy Scouts of America for much of the 20th century.[80]:43 Beginning in 1913, Rockwell began illustrating covers of Boys' Life, the magazine for BSA youth. He also drew the organization's annual calendar illustrations between 1925 and 1976.[80]:89 In 1969, as a tribute to Norman Rockwell's 75th birthday, officials of Brown & Bigelow and the Boy Scouts of America asked Rockwell to pose in Beyond the Easel for a calendar illustration. As part of the U.S. Bicentennial celebrations in 1976, Rockwell's Scouting paintings toured the nation and were viewed by 280,000 people.[80]:155 In 2008, a twelve-city U.S. tour of Rockwell's works is scheduled.[81]

Alvin Townley wrote in Legacy of Honor about the large positive impact of Eagle Scouts in America. Townley cited such examples as how Scouts, especially Eagle Scouts, were disproportionately represented among Hurricane Katrina's volunteer relief workers; just as they are disproportionately represented among members of the United States Senate.[1]:152 Mark Mays, CEO of Clear Channel Communications, told a magazine interviewer in May 2008 that, "Particularly in the very impactful ages of youth 11 to 14 years old, when they can really go astray and you're taking the time to spend with them and focus on cultural core values like reverent, trustworthy, loyal, and helpful —all of those different things ... Scouting has a huge positive impact on boys and their lives, and that in turn positively impacts our communities and society as a whole."[82] Mayor of New York City and business tycoon Michael Bloomberg, said that the BSA's Scout Law required of all Boy Scouts—a Scout is trustworthy, loyal, helpful, friendly, courteous, kind, obedient, cheerful, thrifty, brave, clean, and reverent—are "all the American values ... Americans have quaintly simplistic ways and direct ways of phrasing things ... I think it's one of the great strengths of this country."[1]:116

Peter Applebome, an editor of The New York Times, wrote in 2003 of his experience as an adult participating with his son in Scouting activities, "I feel lucky to have had this unexpected vehicle to share my son's youth, to shape it, and to be shaped by it as well."[83] He concluded that, although Scouting is viewed by some as old-fashioned, "Scouting's core values ... are wonderful building blocks for a movement and a life. Scouting's genuinely egalitarian goals and instincts are more important now than they've ever been. It's one of the only things that kids do that's genuinely cooperative, not competitive."[83]:319-320

At the turn of the 20th century, Halloween had turned into a night of vandalism, with destruction of property and cruelty to animals and people.[84] Around 1912, the Boy Scouts, Boys Clubs and other neighborhood organizations came together to encourage a safe celebration that would end the destruction that had become so common on this night.[85]

Good Turns

Smokey with scouts

Smokey Bear with members of the Boy Scouts of America and the Camp Fire Girls celebrating the 50th anniversary of their founding in 1910.

From the inception of the Scouting movement, Scouts have been urged to "Do a Good Turn Daily." The first national Good Turn was the promotion of a safe and sane Fourth of July in 1913. During World War I, Every Scout to Save a Soldier was a slogan used to motivate Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts to help sell War savings stamps.[86]

Scouting for Food is an on-going annual program begun in 1986 that collects food for local food banks. In 1997, the BSA developed Service to America with a commitment to provide 200 million hours of service by youth members by the end of the year 2000. As part of Service to America, the BSA provided service projects in conjunction with the National Park Service (NPS). In October 2003, the Department of the Interior expanded the program with the creation of Take Pride in America, opening service to all Americans.[87]

Service to America became Good Turn for America in 2004 and expanded to address the problems of hunger, homelessness, and inadequate housing and poor health in conjunction with the Salvation Army, the American Red Cross, Habitat for Humanity, and other organizations.[88]

National Scout jamboree

Main article: National Scout jamboree (Boy Scouts of America)

The national Scout jamboree is a gathering of Boy Scouts from across the USA. It is usually held every four years. The first National Jamboree was held in 1937 at the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C.[89] Since 1981 the jamboree has been held at Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia. On February 11, 2009, BSA's National Executive Board selected Goshen Scout Reservation as the permanent home of the jamboree.[90] However, on August 4, 2009, BSA announced that it decided to withdraw its interest in Goshen as the permanent site of the jamboree, citing significant restrictions on land utilization.[91]

The national Scout jamborees have been held at:

  • (1935) Washington, D.C. – celebrated the 25th anniversary of the BSA; canceled due to a polio epidemic.
  • (1937) Washington, D.C.
  • (1950) Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
  • (1953) Irvine Ranch, California
  • (1957) Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
  • (1960) Colorado Springs, Colorado – celebrated the 50th anniversary of the BSA.
  • (1964) Valley Forge, Pennsylvania
  • (1969) Farragut State Park, Idaho
  • (1973) Farragut State Park, Idaho and Moraine State Park, Pennsylvania
  • (1977) Moraine State Park, Pennsylvania
  • (1981) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
  • (1985) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia – celebrated the 75th anniversary of the BSA.
  • (1989) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
  • (1993) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
  • (1997) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
  • (2001) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia
  • (2005) Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia

Future jamborees are scheduled to be held at:

  • 2010 - Fort A.P. Hill, Virginia – celebrating the 100th anniversary of the BSA.
  • 2013 - A 10,000 acre reclaimed mine site near Beckley, West Virginia is being considered after the August 4, 2009 rejection of the Goshen Scout Reservation amidst community opposition - Rockbridge County, Virginia site [92]

References

Bibliography

  • Perry, Rick (2008-02-12). On My Honor: Why the American Values of the Boy Scouts Are Worth Fighting For. Macon, GA: Stroud & Hall Publishers. ISBN 0979646227. 

Notes

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 Townley, Alvin (2007). Legacy of Honor: The Values and Influence of America's Eagle Scouts. New York: St. Martin's Press, 12. ISBN 0-312-36653-1. Retrieved on 2008-06-22. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 BSA Vision Statement. U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-07-22.
  3. Aims of the Boy Scouts of America (PDF). U.S. Scouting Service Project. Retrieved on 2008-07-03.
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named members
  5. 5.0 5.1 Boy Scouts. The New Book of Knowledge. Grolier Online. Retrieved on 2008-02-24. (registration required)
  6. Template:Cite paper
  7. 7.0 7.1 Macleod, David L. (1983). Building Character in the American Boy: The Boy Scouts, YMCA and Their Forerunners, 1870–1920. University of Wisconsin Press. ISBN 0-299-09400-6. 
  8. Anderson, H. Allen (1986). The Chief: Ernest Thompson Seton and the Changing West. Texas A&M University Press. ISBN 0-89096-239-1. 
  9. Beardsall, Jonny (2007). "Dib, dib, dib... One Hundred Years of Scouts at Brownsea". The National Trust Magazine (Spring 2007): 525–55. National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty.
  10. Peterson, Robert W. (1984). The Boy Scouts: An American Adventure. American Heritage. ISBN 0-8281-1173-1. 
  11. Peterson, Robert W. (2001). "The Man Who Got Lost in the Fog". Scouting. Boy Scouts of America. Retrieved on 2008-06-24.
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